Electrical Engineering

Colorado School of Mines

Electrical Engineering

Colorado School of Mines

Gabriel Santamaria-Botello

Assistant Professor

Gabriel Santamaria-Botello Headshot

Gabriel Santamaria received his Electrical Engineering degree from the University of Carabobo, Venezuela in 2014 and his Ph.D. from Charles III University of Madrid (UC3M), Spain in 2021. During his Ph.D. studies, he developed theoretical models and experimental demonstrations of THz-to-optical upconversion via resonant electro-optics techniques for high-sensitivity THz radiometry. In 2021 he joined the Microwave & RF Research Group at the University of Colorado, Boulder as a Research Associate, where he worked on microwave sensing techniques using Rydberg atoms and the development of non-invasive radiometers for internal body temperature measurements. His research interests include nonlinear and quantum optics, microwave and integrated photonics, low-noise mm-wave and THz sensing, superconducting circuits, and computational electromagnetics (MLFMM).


  • BS, Electrical Engineering, University of Carabobo, 2014
  • PH.D, Electrical Engineering, Charles III University of Madrid, 2021

Research Areas

  • Nonlinear and quantum optics
  • Microwave and integrated photonics
  • Low-noise mm-wave and THz sensing
  • Superconducting circuits
  • Computational Electromagnetics (MLFMM) 


  • Gabriel Santamaria-Botello, Shane Verploegh, Eric Bottomley, Zoya Popovic, “Comparison of Noise Temperature of Rydberg-Atom and Electronic Microwave Receivers” https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2209.00908
  • Gabriel Santamaría Botello, Florian Sedlmeir, Alfredo Rueda, Kerlos Atia Abdalmalak, Elliott R. Brown, Gerd Leuchs, Sascha Preu, Daniel Segovia-Vargas, Dmitry V. Strekalov, Luis Enrique García Muñoz, and Harald G. L. Schwefel, “Sensitivity limits of millimeter-wave photonic radiometers based on efficient electro-optic upconverters,” Optica 5, 1210-1219 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1364/OPTICA.5.001210
  • Santamaría-Botello, G., Popovic, Z., Abdalmalak, K.A. et al. Sensitivity and noise in THz electro-optic upconversion radiometers. Sci Rep 10, 9403 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65987-x
  • R. Streeter, G. S. Botello, K. Hall and Z. Popović, “Correlation Radiometry for Subcutaneous Temperature Measurements,” in IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 230-237, June 2022, https://doi.org/10.1109/JERM.2021.3120320
  • J. Lee, G. S. Botello, R. Streeter and Z. Popović, “Noninvasive Internal Body Thermometry With On-Chip GaAs Dicke Radiometer,” in IEEE Microwave and Wireless Technology Letters, https://doi.org/10.1109/LMWT.2023.3265806
  • K. A. Abdalmalak et al., “Ultrawideband Conical Log-Spiral Circularly Polarized Feed for Radio Astronomy,” in IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 1995-2007, March 2020, https://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2019.2949700
  • G. A. Santamaría-Botello, L. E. García Muñoz, F. Sedlmeir, S. Preu, D. Segovia-Vargas, K. Atia Abdalmalak, S. Llorente Romano, A. García Lampérez, S. Malzer, G. H. Döhler, H. G. L. Schwefel, and H. B. Weber, “Maximization of the optical intra-cavity power of whispering-gallery mode resonators via coupling prism,” Opt. Express 24, 26503-26514 (2016) https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.24.026503

#4 Top 25 Brainiest Colleges, #1 in Colorado (Lumosity, 2019)

6 faculty fellows of the professional organization IEEE

teacher icon19:1 student-faculty ratio

student icon#2 in combining scholarly research and classroom instruction (Wall Street Journal, 2016)

piggy bank#1 for career return on investment (Georgetown University, 2019), #2 best college value (Money Magazine, 2018)